Didactic manuals and music education in the 18th century

fundamental research project
Basic Info


This research project studied several interrelated aspects of music teaching in Slovenian territory in the eighteenth century, based on new points of departure in the most up-to-date interpretations of the history of the eighteenth-century music. Special attention was paid to those that support modern perspectives on the past as a conglomerate of relatively specific cultural (musical) practices, each with its specific rules of agency that are the sine qua non of the existence of these same practices, and are at the same time the aim of today’s historical research and the basis for describing the interrelations of these practices. The research was based on a detailed analysis and contextualization of a selected model: two recently discovered manuscript manuals from the eighteenth century extant in Novo Mesto. These are examples of specific teaching materials originating in Slovenian territory: Compendium cantus choralis de clavibus and Fundamenta zu dem Clavier oder Orgel. They represent a most welcome base for research into an important segment of music teaching practices in Slovenian territory at the time and their direct functional connection with contemporary musical practices, which are very clearly denoted in sociological, geographical, and other cultural terms.

The research project was carried out as planned. It went through all of the proposed phases:  from data collection to systemization of materials and detailed studies and analyses of the two pre-selected model music manuals. The general investigation was concerned with all types of original printed and manuscript sources found in Slovenia connected with learning music during the “long” eighteenth century. The sources were classified and placed into the context of local cultural life. The main result of the project is, however, the online monograph titled Piano and Organ for Beginners (Radovan Škrjanc: Osnove klavirske in orgelske igre. Ljubljana, 2012. ISBN 978-961-254-421-8) concerning one of the two thoroughly studied manuals. This book offers the results of the core study performed within this project. It offers to modern readers the full facsimile of manuscript no. 511 from the Franciscan monastery in Novo Mesto titled Noten-Buch darinnen die Fundamenta zu dem Clavier oder Orgel enthalten, a critical transcription of the theoretical and music part of the manual, a translation into Slovenian with commentary, and five comprehensive analytical contextualizing studies putting the source material into the wider frame of central-European music teaching practices. These chapters deal with the position of this manual for beginning keyboard players within the general development of keyboard teaching in the eighteenth century, gives a survey of all the eighteenth-century music manuals found in Slovenian archives and libraries (by Metoda Kokole), presents theories on possible authorship and dating, analyses theoretical parameters and pedagogical aspects of this manual in comparison with other such eighteenth-century sources, and comments on compositional aspects of the music in the second part of the original manual by comparing the pieces with keyboard compositions from other parts of Europe. According to data acquired through comparative analyses of the paper, script, and music itself, this manual was compiled gradually from c. 1770 onward by various authors and musicians active in the Franciscan province of St. Cross with its center in Ljubljana. A practical side-product of this research is an edition of selected pieces from this manual to be used in music schools as a useful tool and to promote heretofore little-known national musical heritage. The second model case was manuscript no. 501, the Compendium cantus choralis, which was also critically transcribed and translated and is now available as the second online monograph (Jurij Snoj, Kompendij koralnega petja. Ljubljana, 2012. ISBN 978-961-254-420-1) within the series titled Slovenian Musical Heritage (http://ezb.ijs.si/sgd). The Compendium was written by two scribes in the late eighteenth century and is clearly meant to instruct beginners in practical monastic plainchant singing. This project has provided a useful model for further research on music teaching in the eighteenth century and earlier periods.


Selected bibliographical results:


ŠKRJANC, Radovan. Osnove klavirske in orgelske igre = Noten-Buch / darinnen / die Fundamenta / zu dem / Clavier/ oder / Orgel / enthalten : rokopis 511 iz Frančiškanskega samostana Novo mesto : elektronska znanstvenokritična izdaja, (Slovenska glasbena dediščina, 2). Izd. 0.2. Ljubljana: Muzikološki inštitut ZRC SAZU, 2012. ISBN 978-961-254-421-8. http://ezb.ijs.si/fedora/get/ezmono:okoi/VIEW/. [COBISS.SI-ID 266025728]

SNOJ, Jurij. Kompendij koralnega petja = Compendium cantus choralis : rokopis 501 iz Frančiškanskega samostana Novo mesto : elektronska znanstvenokritična izdaja, (Slovenska glasbena dediščina, 1). Izd. 1.0. Ljubljana: Muzikološki inštitut ZRC SAZU, 2012. ISBN 978-961-254-420-1. http://ezb.ijs.si/fedora/get/ezmono:kkp/VIEW/. [COBISS.SI-ID 266025472]


ŠKRJANC, Radovan (urednik). Klavirske skladbe 18. stoletja iz Novega mesta. Ljubljana: Muzikološki inštitut, Znanstvenoraziskovalni center SAZU: distributer Založba ZRC, 2012. 1 partitura (79 str.). [COBISS.SI-ID 265122560]


KOKOLE, Metoda. Glasbenoteoretični in pedagoški priročniki iz "dolgega" 18. stoletja na Slovenskem = Music textbooks and instruction manuals of the 'long' eighteen century in Slovenia. Muzikološki zbornik [Tiskana izd.], 2011, zv. 47, [št.] 1, str. 49-74, ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 32804397]

KOKOLE, Metoda. Who was Antonio Tarsia and from whom did he learn how to compose?. V: COLZANI, Alberto (ur.), LUPPI, Andrea (ur.), PADOAN, Maurizio (ur.). Barocco padano 7 : atti del XV Convegno internazionale sulla musica italiana nei secoli XVII-XVIII, Milano, 14-16 luglio 2009, (Contributi musicologici del Centro Ricerche dell'A.M.I.S., 19). Como: A.M.I.S. [i. e.] Antiquae musicae Italicae studiosi. 2012, str. 413-451, ilustr., note. [COBISS.SI-ID 34468653]

KOKOLE, Metoda. Musicale essercitio : o glasbenem izobraževanju slovenskih protestantov. V: JERŠE, Sašo (ur.). Vera in hotenja : študije o Primožu Trubarju in njegovem času. V Ljubljani: Slovenska matica. 2009, str. 162-183, ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 30640941]

ŠKRJANC, Radovan. Relativnost in funkcija zgodovinopisnega interpretiranja glasbe - predstavitev problema na primeru zgodovinske analize novomeških Fundamenta = The relativeness and function of historical interpretation of music - the problem explicated through a historical analysis of the Fundamenta book from Novo mesto. Muzikološki zbornik [Tiskana izd.], 2011, zv. 47, [št.] 1, str. 75-91, ilustr., note. [COBISS.SI-ID 32804653]

ŠKRJANC, Radovan. O času in kraju nastanka ter avtorstvu novomeškega rokopisa Noten-Buch vorinnen die Fundamenta zu dem Clavier oder Orgel enthalten. V: KOKOLE, Metoda (ur.). Od kartuzijanske glasbene tradicije do recepcije Bachove glasbe na Slovenskem : evropske glasbenozgodovinske študije = From the Carthusian music tradition to the reception of Bach's music in the Slovenian lands : chapters on European music history, (De musica disserenda, letn. 7, št. 1). Ljubljana: Muzikološki inštitut, Znanstvenoraziskovalni center SAZU. 2011, str. 85-112, ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 33265197]

ŠTER, Katarina. "Mojster ima veliko mujo, inu poterpeshlivost" : rokopisni učbenik o osnovah glasbene teorije in koralnem petju iz Pokrajinskega arhiva Koper = 'The master has great trouble, and patience' : elements of music theory and plainchant singing from Pokrajinski arhiv Koper. Muzikološki zbornik [Tiskana izd.], 2011, zv. 47, [št.] 1, str. 93-111, ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 32804909]

CIGOJ KRSTULOVIĆ, Nataša. Didaktični priročniki in poučevanje klavirja v prvi polovici 19. stoletja v Ljubljani. De musica disserenda [Tiskana izd.], 2012, letn. 8, št. 2, str. 21-32. [COBISS.SI-ID 35289389]

GRABNAR, Klemen. Glasbeno izobraževanje v ljubljanskih šolah v drugi polovici 16. in na začetku 17. stoletja. De musica disserenda [Tiskana izd.], 2011, letn. 7, št. 2, str. 63-73. [COBISS.SI-ID 48051554]


music manuals in the 18th century
music didactic tools
sources in Slovenia

Research areas
Musicology H320